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Websites with reference material on Visual Music:

Center for Visual Music (specifically the online Library, other pages as well)

Fred Collopy’s Rhythmic Light

Bishop, Bainbridge. A Souvenir of the Colour Organ, (.PDF) with some suggestions in regard to The Soul of the Rainbow and the Harmony of Light. (1893).

The iotaCenter and it's research pages.

The Fischinger Archive


Moritz, William. Towards an Aesthetics of Visual Music. ASIFA Canada Bulletin, Dec 1986. (hosted on CVM site)

Moritz, William. Digital Harmony: The Life of John Whitney, Animation World Magazine, Volume 2 - No. 5, August 1997.

Moritz, William. Mary Ellen Bute: Seeing Sound, Animation World Magazine, Volume 1 - No. 2, May 1996.

Moritz, William. The Film Strip Tells All (on Richard Reeves and Baerbel Neubauer). Animation World Magazine, Volume 3 - No. 6, September 1998.

Moritz, William and Baerbel Neubauer The Influence of Sound/Music on the Image. Animation World Magazine, Volume 4 - No. 3, June 1999.

William Moritz memorial site:

Baker, Steve. Kinetic Optics.

William, Moritz. Mary Ellen Bute (a history).

Camper, Fred. Favorite Filmmakers. See Stan Brakhage, others.

Corra, Bruno. Abstract Cinema—Chromatic Music, 1912.

Friedlander, Paul. What is Visual Music?

Fischinger, Oskar. Sounding Ornaments.

Keefer, Cindy. A Lifetime in Animation: The Glamorous Dr. William Moritz; Animation World magazine, 2003.

Prampolini, Enrico. Chromophony – The Colour of Sounds

Rimington, Alexander Wallace. A New Art: Colour-Music. Hosted by Joost Rekveld.

Scroggins, Michael. Absolute Animation and Immersive VR

Youngblood, Gene. Expanded Cinema .PDF (hosted by

A Brief History of Synaesthesia and Music


Leonardo bibliography online:

Vasulka Archive

Related Exhibitions:

Visual Music at the Hirshhorn Museum (Press Release) and Visual Music at the Museum for Contemporary Art Los Angeles in 2005.

Sons et Lumieres, Group Exhibition at the Centre Pompidou 2004-05.

What Sound Does a Color Make? Group Exhibition at Eyebeam in 2005.

White Noise, Group Exhibition at the Australian Center for the Moving Image in 2005.

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